MadSci Network: Earth Sciences

Re: The HAARP Project

Date: Mon Oct 26 12:37:36 1998
Area of science: Earth Sciences
ID: 905728043.Es

You know, it might be interesting to open a discussion on MadSci concerning HAARP. The number of issues that it raises would make it an interesting topic. I'm certain that quite a few scientists in various fields are familiar with the project. For those readers who aren't, here are the very basics, so that people know what we're talking about...:

1. The U.S. Navy is constructing a huge ground-based antenna in Alaska that will transmit in the ELF range, that's down in the single digit Hertz, such as 8 Hertz, for example (I don't know that the exact operating frequency is specified, only that it is in the ELF range). The reason that such a huge antenna is necessary is because at that frequency, the wavelength of transmission is 300 million meters for 1 Hertz, 30 million meters for 10 Hertz.

If I recall correctly, in order to set up a proper 360 degree wave, you need an antenna at least 1/3 the wavelength (I think the actual value should be 1/pi). That means at 10 Hertz, the antenna needs to be at least 10 million meters long (10,000 kilometers, or roughly 6,000 miles), which is quite an undertaking. Not undo-able, if you consider the millions of miles of phone lines stretching across the country.

2. The Navy states that they intend to use the antenna to transmit in the ELF to communicate with submarines, since only wavelengths in the ELF will penatrate water (currently, submarines either have to surface or float an antenna above the water to transcieve messages).

3. The energy of transmission needs to be in the megawatt range in order to make the distance necessary to circumscribe the globe. ELF, if I recall correctly, reflects off of the outermost layers of the atmosphere, much in the same way infrared (long wave light) does, hence the greenhouse effect.

4. The environmental concerns include, but are not limited to: a. ELF is shown to affect human and animal brain and central nervous system function at relatively low amplitude (in the pico-Tesla range) as well as other aspects of function of animal (including human) central nervous system activity.

These references are listed below.

b. Since ELF has not been transmitted in this frequency range at this power, the direct ecological impact is otherwise unknown.

c. The dynamic magnetic field of the Earth, referred to as the Schumann resonance (predicted by the German physicist W. O. Schumann between 1952 and 1957, and first detected in 1954), at 7.8 Hertz, is directly in the ELF range, at only a fraction of the broadcasting power of HAARP. The ecological impact of this transmission is unknown.

d. As a 'mind control' device, it is demonstrated in the peer-reviewed scientific literature that ELF causes human and animal wave function (EEG patterns) to 'follow,' or directly mimic (become just like - referred to as 'entrainment') ELF frequencies that the brain is exposed to. This technique has been demonstrated in laboratory settings to induce altered states of consciousness, including hypnogogic states (hypnosis).

REFERENCES: Again, these references are listed below.

e. The CIA has already been put on trial before the U.S. Senate for being suspected (This was in the '70s, if I recall) of experimenting with these techniques: you may have heard of MK-ULTRA. Sounds like X-Files stuff, however, the U.S. Senate thought seriously enough of it to conduct hearings in 197something (this was many years prior to the X-Files, by the way). The outcome was a stalemate, with the Hearings Committee asking 'did you, did you, and did you,' and the CIA responding 'we ain't gonna tell yuh…' The general line of questioning was not limited to the subject of using forms of radiation like ELF, but ELF radiation was a topic discussed in the context of exposing humans to ELF specifically for the purpose of inducing altered states of consciousness including hypnogogic states. The transcripts are available by writing:

"PROJECT MKULTRA, THE CIA'S PROGRAM OF RESEARCH IN BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION", Joint Hearing Before the Select Committee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, Unites States Senate (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1977).

It is probably true that the Navy only intends to use the antenna to communicate with submarines. However, the potential effects of the operation of this unit could have serious implications for human and animal health, as well as hitherto unforseen ecological impacts, not to mention the risk of operating in a frequency range demonstrated to directly affect human and animal behavior and physical health.

It would be very interesting to get some feedback on this out on MadSci from some scientists, although, I don't belive the system is currently set up for chat or open discussion (I actually never checked on that).

I would like to see some open discussion/debate on this.



NOTE: I want the reader to note that some of these papers date back 30 years, indicating that this knowledge has been in the public domain for quite some time.

Agency, March 1976.)

R.J. MacGregor, "A Brief Survey of Literature Relating to Influence of Low 
Intensity Microwaves on Nervous Function" (Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 1970)

Allan H. Frey, "Behavioral Effects of Electromagnetic Energy," SYMPOSIUM ON 
Hazzard, editor (U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1977).

E. Preston, "Studies on the Nervous System, Cardiovascular Function and 
RADIATION, edited by H.M. Assenheim (Ottawa, Canada: National Research Council 
of Canada, 1979), 138-141.

Chung-Kwang Chou and Arthur W. Guy, "Quantization of Microwave Biological 
FREQUENCY/MICROWAVES, edited by Dewitt G. Hazzard (U.S. Department of Health, 
Education and Welfare, 1977).

PHYSICAL CONTROL OF THE MIND, by Jose Delgado (Harper and Row, 1969).

PSYCHOTECHNOLOGY, Robert L. Schwitzgebel and Ralph K. Schwitzgebel (Holt, 
Rhinehart and Winston, 1973).

Adrian, D., "Auditory and visual sensations stimulated by low-frequency electric 
currents", Radio Science, 12, No. 6(5):243-250, 1977.

Anderson, L.E., "Biological Effects of Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic 
Fields: In Vivo Studies", American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 
54(4):186-96, 1993.

Anderson, Larry, "ELF: Exposure Levels, Bioeffects and Epidemiology", Health 
Physics, July 1991

Wilson, Bary, "Chronic Exposure to ELF Fields May Induce Depression", 
Bioelectromagnetics, 9, pp. 195-205, 1988.


Reiser H. Dimpfel W. Schober F. 


Pro Science Private Research Institute GmbH, Linden, Germany. 


The influence of electromagnetic fields on human
brain activity.


European Journal of Medical Research. 1(1):27-32, 1995 Oct 16.


Possible effects of electromagnetic fields on human brain activity were studied. 
In a single-blind, cross-over-designed and placebo-controlled study 36 
volunteers were exposed firstly to an electromagnetic field originating form a 
MediLine "MEGA-WAVE 150/1" therapy instrument and secondly to a field 
originating from a mobile, digital tetlephone as used for wireless 
telecommunication. All volunteers also underwent a control experiment with no 
field exposure. Application of the MEGA-WAVE instrument caused an increase in 
EEG power in the frequency bands Alpha2, Beta1 and Beta2 during and after field 
exposure. Operation of the mobile telephone caused an increase in the same 
frequency bands with a delay of approximately 15 minutes after exposure.


Bell G. Marino A. Chesson A. Struve F. 


Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Louisiana State University Medical Center,
Shreveport 71130. 


Electrical states in the rabbit brain can be altered by
light and electromagnetic fields.


Brain Research. 570(1-2):307-15, 1992 Jan 20.


The effect of low-frequency magnetic fields on the rabbit electroencephalograph 
(EEG) was studied using a quantitative procedure that permitted statistical 
evaluation of the response of individual animals. The field conditions used were 
those predicted by various theories to result in field-animal interactions; 
light and sham exposure were employed as positive and negative controls, 
respectively. Sixty-seven percent of the rabbits exhibited changes in the EEG 
power spectra when light was presented in 2-s epochs; none of the animals 
responded to sham exposure. When 1 Gauss, 5 Hz, was presented in 2-s epochs, 
100% of the animals tested responded to the presence of the field. The rabbits 
did not respond when the magnetic-field frequency was higher than the 
physiological range (1-20 Hz) or when it was tuned for resonance of K+. The 
results showed that an electrical state function may be operationally defined 
for the rabbit brain, and used to assess the occurrence of an interaction 
between an animal and external magnetic fields.


Adey WR. 


Department of Physiology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine,
California 92357. 


The cellular microenvironment and signaling through cell membranes. [Review]
[62 refs]


Progress in Clinical & Biological Research. 257:81-106, 1988.


The structural and functional aspects of communication between cells have been 
reviewed, with emphasis on the cell membrane in detection and transductive 
coupling of oscillating electromagnetic fields in the pericellular environment. 
Imposed fields are powerful and highly specific tools in manipulation of the 
sequence of events in membrane transductive coupling. They have revealed 
nonlinear and nonequilibrium aspects of these interactions. In cerebral tissue, 
extracellular fields orders of magnitude weaker than the membrane potential can 
modulate cell firing patterns, entrain EEG rhythms, alter neurotransmitter 
release and modulate behavioral states. These sensitivities have also been 
widely detected in non-neural tissues. It is therefore proposed that an 
intrinsic communication system between cells based on these weak electromagnetic 
influences may be a general biological property. A three-step model of 
transductive coupling is presented. First, a highly cooperative modification of 
calcium binding occurs in the plane of the membrane surface following a focal 
event at a receptor site. This "amplifying" stage releases substantially more 
energy than in the initial events. Cerebral extracellular conductance changes 
accompanying physiological responses may arise in perineuronal fluid with a 
substantial macromolecular content and calcium ions may modulate perineuronal 
conductivity. In the second stage, coupling occurs along transmembrane helical 
proteins and may be mediated by solitons. The third stage couples transmembrane 
signals to the cytoskeleton and to intracellular enzyme systems, including 
membrane-bound adenylate cyclase and the protein kinase system of intracellular 
messengers. Activation of these intracellular systems is calcium-dependent. 
[References: 62] 


Sidiakin VG. Stashkov AM. Ianova NP. Chemodanova MA. Shumilina KA. Kirillova AV. 


[The physiological mechanisms of the regulation of zoosocial
behavior in rats exposed to low-frequency
electromagnetic fields]. [Russian]


Fiziologicheskii Zhurnal Imeni I. M. Sechenova. 81(4):21-31, 1995 Apr.


The infraslow frequency electromagnetic fields were shown to affect social 
activity in rats: the changes induced by territorial priority and isolation were 
eliminated, an interaction between the motor activity and the social status 
appeared. The monoaminergic system of the rat brain seems to take part in 
physiological mechanisms of regulation of the zoosocial behaviour according to 
changes in ambient conditions. 


Anderson LE. 


Bioelectromagnetics, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory,
Richland, WA 99352. 


Biological effects of extremely low-frequency
electromagnetic fields: in vivo studies. [Review] [116 refs]


American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 54(4):186-96, 1993 Apr.


This paper discusses the biological effects of exposure to extremely low 
frequency electromagnetic fields observed in animal studies. Three areas of 
investigation are reported: (1) studies on the nervous system, including 
behavior and neuroendocrine function; (2) experiments on cancer development in 
animals; and (3) measurements of currents and electric fields induced in animal 
models by exposure to external magnetic fields. An attempt is made to evaluate 
experimental results and interpret them with respect to potential health 
implications. [References: 116] 

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