|MadSci Network: Astronomy|
Claudius Ptolemy is probably the best known philosopher to propose an Earth-based cosmology. He came up with a very complicated system in which the Earth sat at the centre of the Universe, orbitted by the Sun and planets which travelled on circles within circles, a mathematical construction known as epicycles.
There is a whole section of links to information about Ptolemy at Yahoo.
Try the links in the MadSci Library for more information on Astronomy.