|MadSci Network: Other|
I think you are asking about the effects of birth order - did you try using birth order as keywords? You are right that there is a difference between folklore - what people think and say about birth order, and scientific data. It's not so easy to come up with "cold, hard facts," though. There are over 400 articles in the psychology research literature having something to do with birth order, and no simple answers. Some studies find that people are different depending on birth order, others don't. Some find an effect of birth order, but it isn't simple; it also depends on whether you're talking about boys or girls, how big the family is, or other characteristics of the family. Also, how credible the findings of a particular study are depend on how well the study was done - all published research is *not* created equal. Making decisions about how believable a study is requires understanding some of the technical aspects of research design and statistics. So even the studies listed below cannot just be accepted as "cold, hard facts." For better or worse, science is just not as simple as that! I have downloaded the references and abstracts for 25 of articles so you can get an idea of what's out there. If you are interested in reading any of these articles, you can take the references to your librarian, who should be able to help you get copies of the full article. AU - Salmon, Catherine A.; Daly, Martin AF - McMaster U, Dept of Psychology, Hamilton, ON, Canada TI - Birth order and familial sentiment: Middleborns are different. SO - Evolution & Human Behavior. Vol 19(5), Sep 1998, 299-312. IS - 1090-5138 LA - English AB - Three studies examined the effects of birth order on several aspects of family relations and self-identity. In Study 1, with 268 undergraduates (aged 18-30 yrs), 1st and lastborn undergraduates were more likely than middleborns to refer to kinship in characterizing themselves. In Study 2, 140 undergraduates (aged 17-35 yrs) were asked to whom they would turn under 2 scenarios of duress. First and lastborns were more likely to nominate parents, whereas middleborns were more likely to nominate siblings. In Study 3, analyses of historical archives and of an Internet questionnaire indicated that genealogical research attracts many more 1st-born and many fewer middleborns than expected by chance. In all 3 studies, 1st and lastborns were much more likely than middleborns to nominate their mothers as the person to whom they felt closest. These substantial effects support claims that birth orders constitute significant family niches, which differ with respect to the perceived dependability of parental investment and therefore also differ in the social orientations that they engender. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - birth order & family relations & sentiment & self identity & reliance on parents vs siblings, 17-35 yr old 1st- vs middle- vs lastborn college students AU - Jefferson, Tyrone Jr.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.; McCrae, Robert R. AF - Morgan State U, Baltimore, MD, USA TI - Associations between birth order and personality traits: Evidence from self-reports and observer ratings. SO - Journal of Research in Personality. Vol 32(4), Dec 1998, 498-509. IS - 0092-6566 AB - Birth-order effects on traits within the five-factor model of personality were examined in 3 sets of analyses of archival data. The 1st used self report measures of Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), and Openness (O) in a national sample of 9,664 Ss. Results were unrelated to birth order. Self-reports on the 30 facet scales of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in 612 55-96 yr olds show only small effects for Altruism and Tender-Mindedness. Peer ratings of 166 61-94 yr olds support the hypotheses that later born children would be higher in facets of Openness and Agreeableness, but spouse ratings (N = 88) did not replicate those findings. It is concluded that birth order may have subtle effects on perceived personality, but it is unlikely that this effect mediates associations with scientific radicalism. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). AU - Parker, Wayne D. AF - Johns Hopkins U, Inst for the Academic Advancement of Youth, Baltimore, MD, USA TI - Birth-order effects in the academically talented. SO - Gifted Child Quarterly. Vol 42(1), Win 1998, 29-38. IS - 0016-9862 LA - English AB - Birth-order position was studied among 828 academically talented 6th grade students from a national sample collected by the Institute for the Academic Advancement of Youth of Johns Hopkins University. When compared to 1990 US Census Bureau data, the sample was disproportionately composed of first-born students. However, much of this birth order effect can be explained by the covariate of family size, with small families over-represented among the gifted. First-born students tended to get higher verbal scores on the Secondary School Admissions Test while youngest-born tended to do better in math. Students were administered the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Adjective Check List, the NEO Five Factor Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and the Brief Symptom Inventory. Except for a mild relationship between birth order and perfectionistic type, there was no relationship found between birth-order position and personality and adjustment. It is believed that often reported birth-order position effects are strongly related to the covariance of family size. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - birth order & family size, giftedness & academic ability, 6th grade students MJ - Academic Achievement; Birth Order; Family Size; Gifted MN - Childhood; Elementary School Students CC - 3575 Gifted & Talented PO - Human; Male; Female; Childhood (birth-12 yrs); School Age (6-12 yrs) PL - USA FT - Empirical Study SF - References RD - 19980501 4 AN - 1997-06850-008 DT - Journal Article AU - White, JoAnna; Campbell, Linda; Stewart, Alan; Davies, Mardy; et al AF - Georgia State U, Dept of Counseling & Psychological Services, Atlanta, GA, USA TI - The relationship of psychological birth order to career interests. SO - Individual Psychology: Journal of Adlerian Theory, Research & Practice. Vol 53(1), Mar 1997, 89-104. IS - 0277-7010 LA - English AB - 491 Ss (aged 17-50 yrs) completed an occupational interests inventory and a psychological birth order inventory. Each S was given individualized feedback on psychological birth order position and the identified characteristics of that position. Additionally, the Ss were given their scores on the occupational interests inventory and were offered further exploration of the occupational information. Results indicate that it is not the birth order itself that is important, but the pattern of behaviors and attitudes that emerge from family experiences, that play a role in career interests. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - psychological birth order & occupational interests, 17-50 yr olds MJ - Birth Order; Occupational Interests MN - Adolescence; Adulthood CC - 3610 Occupational Interests & Guidance PO - Human; Male; Female; Adolescence (13-17 yrs); Adulthood (18 yrs & older); Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs); Thirties (30-39 yrs); Middle Age (40-64 yrs) FT - Empirical Study SF - References RD - 19970101 5 AN - 1997-04913-016 DT - Journal Article AU - Marjoribanks, Kevin AF - U Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia TI - Ordinal position, family environment, and status attainment among Australian young adults. SO - Journal of Social Psychology. Vol 137(3), Jun 1997, 398-399. IS - 0022-4545 LA - English AB - R. Travis and V. Kohli (see record 83-26312) reported on the relationship between birth order and the educational attainment of men and women from different socioeconomic backgrounds in the US. The present study seeks to refine Travis and Kohli's study by examining the extent to which proximal family environment measures mediate relationships between birth order and young adults' educational and occupational attainment. Data were collected from 300 Australians at age 11 yrs, age 16 yrs , and age 21 yrs. Results support Travis and Kohli's conclusion that relations between birth order and status-attainment measures vary for adults from differing socioeconomic backgrounds. Results also indicate the importance of examining gender-related differences in analyses of birth-order effects. Generally, the results of this study suggest that birth-order variations in young adults' status attainment can be attributed to differences in proximal family learning environments, a conclusion that supports further the sibling resource-dilution hypothesis. The current analysis thus provides a replication and refinement of their findings to an Australian sample. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - birth order & proximal family environment & educational & occupational attainment, 11 vs 16 vs 21 yr olds, Australia, longitudinal study, replication & extension MJ - Birth Order; Educational Attainment Level; Home Environment; Family Socioeconomic Level; Occupational Status MN - Adolescence; Childhood; School Age Children; Adulthood CC - 2950 Marriage & Family PO - Human; Male; Female; Childhood (birth-12 yrs); School Age (6-12 yrs); Adolescence (13-17 yrs); Adulthood (18 yrs & older); Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs) PL - Australia FT - Empirical Study; Experimental Replication SF - References RD - 19970101 6 AN - 1997-04731-001 DT - Journal Article AU - Zajonc, Robert B.; Mullally, Patricia R. AF - Stanford U, Dept of Psychology, Stanford, CA, USA TI - Birth order: Reconciling conflicting effects. SO - American Psychologist. Vol 52(7), Jul 1997, 685-699. IS - 0003-066X LA - English AB - (journal abstract) Secular trends in test scores are accurately predicted by trends in aggregate birth orders. The trend data contradict individual-difference analyses that show birth order as a poor predictor of individual test scores. This article demonstrates why the 2 formulations of the problem--the individually distributed birth order analysis and aggregate-pattern analysis--generate different results. A meaningful interpretation is given by the confluence model, a theory specifying the process whereby the intellectual environment modulates intellectual development. The authors introduce the concept of collective potentiation that specifies collective side effects of birth order. In contrast to genetic theories, the confluence model quantifies the differential environmental contributions to intellectual development of successive siblings, and it offers several well-confirmed derivations that genetic and other developmental theories cannot explain. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - individually distributed birth order analysis vs aggregate pattern analysis as predictors of test scores & confluence model of intellectual development MJ - Birth Order; Intellectual Development; Statistical Analysis; Test Scores MN - Models; Statistical Correlation CC - 2820 Cognitive & Perceptual Development; 2240 Statistics & Mathematics PO - Human SF - References RD - 19970101 7 AN - 1997-08229-000 DT - Authored Book AU - Somit, Albert; Arwine, Alan; Peterson, Steven A. TI - Birth order and political behavior. SO - Lanham, MD, USA: University Press of America, Inc. (1996). vii, 159 pp. IS - 0-7618-0133-2 (hardcover); 0-7618-0134-0 (paperback) LA - English AB - (from the publicity materials) This book provides a careful examination of the possible influence of birth order on political achievement and behavior. The authors look at American presidents, Supreme Court justices, US senators and representatives, and the careers of an entire West Point class. For a comparative dimension, they also study British Prime Ministers, U. N. Secretaries General, post-Reformation popes, leaders of the USSR, and great generals through the ages. [This book provides] insightful reading for almost any behavioral scientist. The book will also be relevant to courses in child development, clinical psychology, psychiatry, political science, anthropology, and sociology. (from the book) [Discusses] the significance of "birth order"--and especially the importance of being first-born.[The authors examine] the question of why birth order might have a significant effect on personality, intelligence, achievement, etc., as well as political behavior? An overview of birth order theories [is provided] in an appendix. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - birth order theories & importance of being first-born, political behavior & achievement, elite leaders MJ - Achievement; Birth Order; Political Participation; Theories MN - Leadership CC - 3120 Personality Traits & Processes PO - Human SF - Index; References IN - Psychology: Professional & Research TO - Preface Part I: Where we started Where we started Clearing the underbrush Part II: Birth order and American political elites Presidents Supreme Court Justices Senators and Representatives Military achievement--West Point graduates: A case study Part III: Other cultures, other times, other political elites British Prime Ministers: A second look Selected foreign elites--The Soviet leadership, United Nations Secretaries General and post-Reformation Popes the great generals in history Part IV: Where we came out ". . . to kill a vampire" Appendix: Birth order theories References Index RD - 19970101 8 AN - 1996-04095-010 DT - Journal Article AU - Eyring, William E.; Sobelman, Steven AF - Loyola Coll, Baltimore, MD, USA TI - Narcissism and birth order. SO - Psychological Reports. Vol 78(2), Apr 1996, 403-406. IS - 0033-2941 LA - English AB - Investigated the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism and compared the psychodynamic and social learning hypotheses related to it. 79 undergraduates (mean age 19 yrs) were grouped as 1st-borns, only children, 2nd-borns, and last-borns. Ss were administered the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (R. N. Raskin & C. Hall, 1979). Results reveal that the only children scored the highest on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, followed by last-, 1st- and 2nd-born children. These results do not support psychoanalytic theory of development of narcissism, nor the proposition from social learning theory that only children are more likely to develop narcissistic personalities. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - birth order & development of narcissism, college students, comparison of psychodynamic & social learning hypotheses MJ - Birth Order; Narcissism MN - Adulthood; Psychodynamics; Social Learning CC - 3120 Personality Traits & Processes PO - Human; Adulthood (18 yrs & older) FT - Empirical Study SF - References RD - 19970101 9 AN - 1996-01743-025 DT - Journal Article AU - Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Goodz, Elizabeth; Deverensky, Jeffrey L. AF - McGill U, Dept of Psychology, Montreal, PQ, Canada TI - Birth order effects on early language development: Do secondborn children learn from overheard speech? SO - Child Development. Vol 67(2), Apr 1996, 621-634. IS - 0009-3920 LA - English AB - Compared language development of 16 firstborn (FB) and 16 secondborn (SB) children (with siblings 1-4 yrs older) of English-speaking families at 20-22 mo to investigate whether SB children benefit from overheard conversations between caregivers and older siblings in learning personal pronouns. The child's spontaneous language data and controlled tasks were used to measure production of 1st- and 2nd-person pronouns. The mean length of utterance, total number of intelligible utterances, total vocabulary (types), and total number of words (tokens) were calculated as measures of general language development. A follow-up study was conducted 3 mo later to examine the subsequent language development of 10 FB and 10 SB children using the same procedures and measures as used at 21 mo. Results indicate SB children were more advanced than FB children at both ages in pronoun production, while not differing in general language development. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - language development, 1st-vs 2nd-born 20-22 mo olds, 3 mo followup MJ - Birth Order; Early Childhood Development; Language Development MN - Childhood; Pronouns; Preschool Age Children; Followup Studies; Infants CC - 2820 Cognitive & Perceptual Development PO - Human; Childhood (birth-12 yrs); Infancy (1-23 mo); Preschool Age (2-5 yrs) PL - USA FT - Empirical Study; Followup Study SF - References RD - 19970101 10 AN - 1996-26312-001 DT - Journal Article AU - Travis, Russell; Kohli, Vandana AF - California State U, Dept of Sociology/Anthropology, Bakersfield, USA TI - The birth order factor: Ordinal position, social strata, and educational achievement. SO - Journal of Social Psychology. Vol 135(4), Aug 1995, 499-507. IS - 0022-4545 LA - English AB - Explored the relationship between birth order and academic attainment of 817 men and women from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds. A measure of Ss' family economic situation during their growing-up years was incorporated. Birth order had a negative impact on total years of education completed among members of the middle class. The observed patterns also indicate that only children appeared disproportionately to excel in terms of educational attainment. Data support a resource-dilution hypothesis that emphasizes the unequal allocation of resources among children as an intervening variable between sibling structure and educational consequences. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - birth order & socioeconomic background & educational attainment, adults MJ - Birth Order; Education; Family Socioeconomic Level MN - Adulthood CC - 2950 Marriage & Family PO - Human; Adulthood (18 yrs & older) FT - Empirical Study RD - 19960901 11 AN - 1996-21478-001 DT - Journal Article AU - Marjoribanks, Kevin AF - U Adelaide, SA, Australia TI - Birth order, family environment, and young adults' occupational aspirations. SO - Psychological Reports. Vol 77(2), Oct 1995, 626-628. IS - 0033-2941 LA - English AB - Examined relationships among birth order, family environments, and occupational aspirations for 320 21-yr-olds. Results indicated that relations between birth order and aspirations were mediated by associations between Ss' perceptions of their parents' involvement in learning and the measures of aspiration. Realistic aspirations were more strongly related to birth order and family environment than idealistic aspirations. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - birth order & family environment & occupational aspiration, 21 yr olds MJ - Birth Order; Family Relations; Occupational Aspirations MN - Adulthood CC - 3650 Personnel Attitudes & Job Satisfaction PO - Human; Adulthood (18 yrs & older) FT - Empirical Study RD - 19960701 12 AN - 1996-15734-001 DT - Journal Article AU - Sputa, Cheryl L.; Paulson, Sharon E. AF - Ball State U, Teachers Coll, Dept of Educational Psychology, Muncie, IN, USA TI - Birth order and family size: Influences on adolescents' achievement and related parenting behaviors. SO - Psychological Reports. Vol 76(1), Feb 1995, 43-51. IS - 0033-2941 LA - English AB - Examined whether parenting style and parental involvement serve as mediators of birth order and family size differences in achievement. The Ss were 195 9th grade boys and girls (mean age 14.9 yrs) and both of their parents. Questionnaire measures of adolescents' and parents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement were obtained. Results reveal that birth order and family size differences were found in adolescents' achievement and perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement, but not in parents' perceptions of parenting. However, these parenting characteristics did not mediate the differences seen in achievement by birth order and family size. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - birth order & family size & parenting style & parental involvement, academic achievement, 9th graders & their parents MJ - Academic Achievement; Birth Order; Family Size; Parent Child Relations; Parental Characteristics MN - Adolescence; Parents; Adulthood CC - 3550 Academic Learning & Achievement PO - Human; Adolescence (13-17 yrs); Adulthood (18 yrs & older) FT - Empirical Study RD - 19960501 13 AN - 1995-33052-001 DT - Journal Article AU - Nyman, Lawrence AF - City U New York, City Coll, Dept of Psychology, USA TI - The identification of birth order personality attributes. SO - Journal of Psychology. Vol 129(1), Jan 1995, 51-59. IS - 0022-3980 LA - English AB - 139 undergraduate and graduate students (46% Black and 31% Hispanic) used adjectival listings to record quantitative and qualitative assessments of personality traits for birth order positions. Personality profiles that outlined the perceived strengths and weaknesses of each rank and sex were established. Regardless of sex, the 1st born was viewed as the most favored birth position, followed by the middle, youngest, and only-child positions. The bias in favor of or against a particular birth position seemed to be linked to personality traits deemed distinctive to that position. Ranking of Ss' own birth position was consistent with the way others perceived that position. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - birth order & personality traits, undergraduate & graduate students MJ - Birth Order; Personality Traits MN - Adulthood CC - 3120 Personality Traits & Processes PO - Human; Adulthood (18 yrs & older) FT - Empirical Study RD - 19950901 14 AN - 1995-21128-001 DT - Journal Article AU - Somit, Albert; Peterson, Steven A.; Arwine, Alan AF - Southern Illinois U, USA TI - Birth order as a factor in presidential selection and performance. SO - Social Science Journal. Vol 31(4), 1994, 407-419. IS - 0362-3319 LA - English AB - Explores the relationship between birth order and presidential selection and performance. Data indicate that birth order has not been clearly related to presidential selection over the past 200 yrs. The high incidence of 1st-born presidents during the periods between 1789 and 1856 and between 1920 and 1992 can be explained, at least for the 1st period, in terms of educational requirements, the small number of individuals who met these requirements, and the educational advantages often enjoyed by eldest sons. Results showed no correlation between the performance of 1st-born or non-1st-born sons in terms of vote getting ability, use of the veto, evaluations of presidential greatness, and presidential personality types. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - birth order, presidential selection & performance, presidents MJ - Birth Order; Job Performance; Political Elections; Politicians CC - 2960 Political Processes & Political Issues PO - Human RD - 19950601 15 AN - 1995-15590-001 DT - Journal Article AU - Somit, Albert; Peterson, Steven A.; Arwine, Alan AF - Southern Illinois U, Carbondale, USA TI - Birth order and career military success: A research note. SO - Politics & the Individual. Vol 4(1), 1994, 95-99. IS - 0939-6071 LA - English AB - Researches birth order (especially being the 1st-born child) and military career success. First-born children have been proven in the past to have extraordinary leadership abilities which bring them to the fore in conventional and nonconventional political activities alike. An analysis of a large West Point officer cohort indicates no meaningful relationship between birth order and military ability. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - birth order, military career success, West Point cohort MJ - Birth Order; Military Personnel; Occupational Success MN - Adulthood CC - 3800 Military Psychology PO - Human; Adulthood (18 yrs & older) FT - Empirical Study RD - 19950401 16 AN - 1994-07621-001 DT - Journal Article AU - Bohmer, Patricia; Sitton, Sarah AF - St Edward's U, TX, USA TI - The influence of birth order and family size on notable American women's selection of careers. SO - Psychological Record. Vol 43(3), Sum 1993, 375-380. IS - 0033-2933 LA - English AB - A comparison of the birth order and number of siblings for 201 women profiled in Notable American Women revealed different patterns in the selection of occupations for various birth orders and family sizes. Chi-square analyses revealed that 2nd-borns selected careers in science more frequently than other birth orders; last borns chose careers in performing arts most often; writers were more likely to be 1st-borns; and reformers, regardless of birth order, came from larger families. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - birth order & family size, career selection, females cited in "Notable American Women" MJ - Birth Order; Family Size; Human Females; Occupational Choice MN - Adulthood CC - 3610 Occupational Interests & Guidance PO - Human; Female; Adulthood (18 yrs & older) FT - Empirical Study RD - 19940201 17 AN - 1993-47468-001 DT - Journal Article AU - Seff, Monica A.; Gecas, Viktor; Frey, James H. AF - U Texas, Arlington, USA TI - Birth order, self-concept, and participation in dangerous sports. SO - Journal of Psychology. Vol 127(2), Mar 1993, 221-232. IS - 0022-3980 LA - English AB - Examined the effect of birth order on participation in dangerous sports by surveying 436 members (aged 17-63 yrs) of a parachutists association. Assessments were made of degree of risk in Ss' leisure activities, background characteristics, reasons for parachuting, and self-concept. Findings did not support the hypothesis that later born children are more likely than 1st-born children to engage in high-risk recreational activities. There was some support for the expectation that self-efficacy would be positively related to participation in dangerous sports, but not for the expectation that self-efficacy would be related to birth order. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - birth order & self concept & participation in high risk recreational activities, 17-63 yr old parachutist association members MJ - Athletic Participation; Birth Order; Risk Taking; Self Concept MN - Adolescence; Adulthood CC - 3740 Recreation & Leisure PO - Human; Adolescence (13-17 yrs); Adulthood (18 yrs & older) FT - Empirical Study RD - 19931201 18 AN - 1994-25189-001 DT - Journal Article AU - Watkins, C. Edward AF - U North Texas, USA TI - Birth-order research and Adler's theory: A critical review. SO - Individual Psychology: Journal of Adlerian Theory, Research & Practice. Vol 48(3), Sep 1992, 357-368. IS - 0277-7010 LA - English AB - Reviews recent Adlerian research on birth-order (BO) effects to examine how such research has controlled for intervening variables (e.g., sex) and what can be learned to apply to future research. The 25 BO studies appearing in Individual Psychology from 1981 through mid-1991 were analyzed. Some conclusions suggested by these studies are that achievement motivation patterns vary with BO, firstborns often manifest the firstborn profile found in Adlerian literature, and BO effects may vary as a result of ethnicity. However, there were a number of methodological problems with these studies: Age and race were often not mentioned or not well specified. 10 of the studies used self-developed questionnaires that had 5 or fewer items. Also, variables such as siblings' sex, sibship size, age spacing, and SES were usually not controlled for. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - methodological problems in Adlerian birth order research, literature review MJ - Birth Order; Individual Psychology; Literature Review; Methodology CC - 2950 Marriage & Family PO - Human FT - Literature Review/Research Review RD - 19940701 19 AN - 1993-09291-001 DT - Journal Article AU - Radio Gaynor, Joni R.; Runco, Mark A. AF - California State U, Fullerton, USA TI - Family size, birth-order, age-interval, and the creativity of children. SO - Journal of Creative Behavior. Vol 26(2), 1992, 108-118. IS - 0022-0175 LA - English AB - Examined the relationship between age-interval and creative abilities (CRAs) of 63 male and 51 female 4th-6th graders. The relationship between parental views and the children's CRA was also examined, using 76 parents' responses on the Parental Evaluation of Children's Creativity by M. A. Runco (see PA, Vol 76:35184). Children's originality and fluency scores on 3 divergent thinking tests were also measured. Age-interval was related to Ss' CRA. When age-interval, age, sex, family size, and birth order were considered, a richer description of family factors emerged. After controlling for age and age-interval, birth order data revealed that middle Ss had different scores, and differences were uncovered based on family size. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). KP - family size & birth order &
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