|MadSci Network: Neuroscience|
People do processes stimuli while they are sleeping, even if they are not aware of doing so. This stimulus processing in sleep can produce 'microarousals', or partial awakenings, which disturb the sleep cycle. There does not seem to have been a lot of research done on sleep learning (or HYPNOPEDIA) in the last 2 decades, but I did find some studies which are at the end of this message. These studies were about whether sleep learning worked, not whether it disrupted sleep. The articles seem to suggest that language learning, particularly vocabulary and grammar structure, may be occur during sleep. There may be little current research about this area in print in the English language because the bulk of the early work was published in Russian, but it may be that this research was not pursued further because it did not seem to be panning out.
Cooper,-Leslie-M.; Hoskovec,-J. Hypnotic suggestions for learning during stage I REM sleep. American-Journal-of-Clinical-Hypnosis. 1972 Oct; Vol. 15(2): 102-111. 11 highly hypnotically susceptible Ss participated in a sleep-learning experiment which involved sleeping in the laboratory on 2 successive nights. Results show that learning during sleep as here defined was possible but not practical.
Pal,-Kooze; Erzsebet,-G.-Ordogh; Otto,-Stabel Hypnopaedical experiments. Modern-Nyelvoktatas. 1968; 6(1-2): 100-113. The conclusions of experimental projects in which Russian lessons and expressions were used as the training material for mixed age groups and individuals, indicates the following: (1) hypnopaedia can be applied as an auxilliary aid supporting daytime learning, therefore (2) it seems to accelerate and facilitate the process of classroom studies and homework, and (3) its application is recommended for secondary school students and adults.
Zenkevich,-G.-K.; Begayeva,-G.-D. Experience in the application of hypnopaedia in the teaching of foreign languages. V-Pomotch-Prepodevatelyam-Instrannyh-Yazikov. 1968; 2: 3-20. By analyzing the results of various hypnopaedic teaching projects conducted by L. A. Bliznichenko, V. V. Vachmistrov, and G. K. Zenkevich, and comparing the coefficient of productiveness between experimental (hypnopaedic) and control (nonhypnopaedic) instructions, it is concluded that: "The hypnopaedic method in combination with day-time lecture sessions accelerates the process of learning several fold. Probably the use of hypnopaedia is harmless to the health. To a certain extent the hypnopaedic method corresponds to the principles of programed instructions."
Vachmistrov,-V.-V.. The English language: Experimental course with the use of hypnopaedic instructions. Discusses the application of a combined, i.e., hypnopaedic and daytime, teaching method based on large scale experiments conducted in military institutes. Each of the 30 lessons has its hypnopaedic text that is broacast to students sleeping in specially equipped dormitories. The book is compiled for 90 academic hr. divided into 30 hr. of night "sleep-learn" and 60 hr. of daytime lessons. The theory, methodology, organization, and pedagogical aspects of this combined teaching method with its significant advantages for the rapid acquisition of foreign languages are discussed.
LEWIS,-S.-A.. LEARNING WHILE ASLEEP. Bulletin-of-the-British-Psychological-Society. 1968; 21(70): 23-26. DIRECT EXPERIMENTS OF SLEEP-LEARNING SUGGEST THAT IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO PUT THIS 3RD OF LIFE TO THE ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE. CONVERSELY, SOME RELEVANT EXPERIMENTS PERTAINING TO DISCRIMINATION DURING SLEEP SEEM TO SUGGEST THAT AT THIS LEVEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS AT LEAST 1 OF THE PROCESSES ESSENTIAL FOR LEARNING IS AVAILABLE. IT IS CONCLUDED THAT ONE CANNOT PREJUDGE OR RULE OUT THE POSSIBILITY OF LEARNING DURING SLEEP BUT THAT THOSE WHO MAINTAIN THAT ONE CAN LEARN DURING SLEEP MUST PROVE IT.
Erzsebetr,-G.-Oaerdogh. About hypnopaedical research. Modern-Nyelvoktatas. 1967; 5(1): 69-74. The storage of data in this fast technical age presents evergrowing problems. In the search for methods to facilitate and accelerate the intake of knowledge, the subject of "learning while asleep" ("hypnopaedia") has been also entered into the repertoire of scientific literature. By analyzing the short history and development of this subject from both Russian and Western studies, skill and caution are recommended for the successful application of hypnopaedia under the supervision of psychologists, doctors, and pedagogues.
Zuchar,-V.-P Scientific and practical problems of learning in the conditions of natural sleep. Moscow, USSR, Ministry of Secondary and Higher Education of the Rsfsr. (1967). 171 pp. A comprehensive collection of selected literature contributed by Soviet authors, who participated in the development of hypnopaedia. Topics covered are: hypnopaedia and learning; some methodology problems in foreign language instruction using hypnopaedia; results of teaching foreign languages using hypnopaedia; current problems in the neurophysiological study of human sleep in the conditions of guided verbal influence; EEG study of human sleep during verbal influence action; psychological aspects of the problem of perception of information during sleep; the psychophysiological mechanisms of the perception of information during natural sleep; medical examination of persons who have been instructed by the hypnopaedic method; electroacoustic equipment of the hypnopaedic laboratory; and experiment in the organization of instructions with utilization of hypnopaedia
AUTHOR: HOSKOVEC,-J.. HYPNOPEDIA IN THE SOVIET UNION: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF RECENT MAJOR EXPERIMENTS. International-Journal-of-Clinical-and-Experimental-Hypnosis. 1966; 14(4): 308-315. MAJOR SOVIET HYPNOPEDIA (SLEEP-LEARNING) EXPERIMENTS SHOW THAT LEARNING DURING SLEEP IS POSSIBLE WHEN A "SUGGESTED SET" TO PERCEIVE AND REMEMBER THE LEARNING MATERIAL DURING SLEEP IS INVOLVED. SELECTION OF SS ACCORDING TO HYPNOTIZABILITY OR PRIMARY SUGGESTIBILITY SEEMS TO BE AN IMPORTANT PREREQUISITE. THE INFLUENCE OF HYPNOPEDIA ON THE MENTAL HEALTH OF SS IS EVALUATED.
Bliznichenko,-L.-A.. Introduction and consolidation of information in the human memory at evening and during natural sleep. Kiev, USSR, Naukova Dumka. (1966). 145 pp. A test book which discusses the theory of hypnopaedia for teaching foreign languages and the Morse Code from a linguistic and phonetic viewpoint. Chapters contain the methodology and the intonational aspects of hypnopaedic speech in relation with ordinary speech. It is emphasized that hypnopaedic speech ("sleep-learn" training material) requires certain acoustic manipulations "within its parameters" for its adaptation to psychological conditions, occurring during the periods of nocturnal, i.e., hypnopaedic, instructions
Pollack,-Cecelia Sleep-learning as an aid in teaching reading to a brain-injured boy Journal-of-Mental-Deficiency-Research. 1962; 6(2): 101-107. "This study was designed to test whether sleep-learning could be productive as a supplement to conscious learning in teaching a brain-injured boy . . . the blending of short vowel sounds into words . . . The results of the study indicate that learning of auditory material does occur during partial sleep."
Simon,-Charles-W.; Emmons,-William-H. Learning during sleep? Psychological-Bulletin. 1955; 52: 328-342. Studies on the sleep-learning phenomenon are criticized in terms of weaknesses in experimental design, statistics and methodology employed, and criteria of sleep. While it is highly speculative that the studies reviewed show that sleep-learning is possible, "The conditions under which the results were found end more to support the contention that some learning takes place in a special kind of waking state wherein Ss apparently do not remember later on if they had been awake. This may be of great practical importance from the standpoint of economy in study time, but it cannot be construed as sleep-learning
Simon,-Charles-W.; Emmons,-William-H. Considerations for research in a sleep-learning program. Santa Monica, Calif., Rand Corp.. (1954). vi, 68 pp. This report is primarily concerned with examining sleep-learning in terms of the methodological issues it presents. In the process of developing these problems, the authors review critically some ten tudies in the area. They conclude from this review, " . . . none satisfactorily controlled the level of sleep and there is reason to suspect that whatever learning took place did so during a waking interval." It is concluded that, "The prognosis for sleep-learning is most discouraging when physiological correlates indicate that the subject is asleep, . . . ." The report concludes with some recommendations on the basic elements to be included in any valid and meaningful research program on the sleep-learning question.
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