|MadSci Network: Neuroscience|
This is a great idea for a project... and yes, food color does influence what flavor people think they are tasting. The reason why you haven't found any information on this topic is that most of it is published in scientific books and journals that are only available in University libraries. If you are interested in learning more, since you are located in Minnesota, you might try the University of Minnesota libraries. You might also try the Food Science department at the University of Minnesota: http://fscn.che.umn.edu/ Your idea of using yellow colored vanilla pudding is an interesting one. You might also try a fruit flavor (like cherry) and see what the effect of different colors would be. I know that other people who have tried this with hard candies have found that the color will mis-lead people about what they think the taste will be. Good luck!
Try the links in the MadSci Library for more information on Neuroscience.