|MadSci Network: Astronomy|
In very simple terms, the answer to your question is "no." Keep in mind, however that were you to be a follower of the astrology crowd, a person born on your birthday on, say Pluto, would have a very different "chart" - if you put more stock in such things than mere curiosity, than it would be from here on earth. From Pluto, or any other planet for that matter, the Sun would appear to be in very different constellations with differing moons rising and other planets playing key roles in the charts than if they were drawn from our home. This is key to debunkers thinking astrology a lot of bunk, which I believe it is. The part of your question posed about using telescopes may play a bit of a part in angular measurements, but not by much. The distances are so vast that one would have to be well outside the confines and influence of our sun to notice much of a difference in any of our local asterisms or constellations. The angular changes would be greater from outside the orbit of earth than from inside, but one would need quite a fancy telescope to be able to detect the change. [Moderator's note: professional astronomers do have to correct for the effect's of the Earth's motion when making very precise angular measurements.] On the other hand, hang around for another twenty-five thousand years or so and you will see that Polaris no longer hangs above the earth's geographic North Pole or at the Celestial Sphere's north pole. This is mostly because the direction of the Earth's north pole slowly changes, but also because the stars themselves are moving (and so is the Sun!). At any rate the heavens and the constellations would then appear quite different. As a matter of fact, it is true that some of the constellations astrologers use today on charts are quite different from those used thousands of years ago by the astrologers for King Herod or Pharaoh Ramses. So, if you don't like Polaris as your guiding star, stick around for a while and that will change. For more on this and other interesting historical and scientific concepts on the state of cosmology/astronomy, see Timothy Ferris' book "Coming of Age in the Milky Way" and his latest, "The Whole Shebang". Both are excellent books and easy enough for the moderately educated to understand. Thanks for your question and the opportunity to shake a little of the cobwebs from my brain. It has been years since I covered this aspact of astronomy. I had just returned from the back yard looking at the Orion Nebula when I found your question posed at my e-mail site. Hope the answer was of a bit of help to you.
Try the links in the MadSci Library for more information on Astronomy.