MadSci Network: Other

Re: What are the expected qualities of children in a family (i.e. oldest)?

Date: Wed Apr 28 09:53:36 1999
Posted By: Deborah Ader, Faculty, Psychiatry and Medical and Clinical Psychology, USUHS
Area of science: Other
ID: 924962259.Ot

I think you are asking about the effects of birth order - did you try using 
birth order as keywords? You are right that there is a difference between 
folklore - what people think and say about birth order, and scientific 
data. It's not so easy to come up with "cold, hard facts," though. There 
are over 400 articles in the psychology research literature having 
something to do with birth order, and no simple answers. Some studies find 
that people are different depending on birth order, others don't. Some find 
an effect of birth order, but it isn't simple; it also depends on whether 
you're talking about boys or girls, how big the family is, or other 
characteristics of the family. Also, how credible the findings of a 
particular study are depend on how well the study was done - all published 
research is *not* created equal. Making decisions about how believable a 
study is requires understanding some of the technical aspects of research 
design and statistics. So even the studies listed below cannot just be 
accepted as "cold, hard facts." For better or worse, science is just not 
as simple as that! I have downloaded the references and abstracts for 25 of 
articles so you can get an idea of what's out there. If you are interested 
in reading any of these articles, you can take the references to your 
librarian, who should be able to help you get copies of the full article. 

AU  - Salmon, Catherine A.; Daly, Martin
AF  - McMaster U, Dept of Psychology, Hamilton, ON, Canada
TI  - Birth order and familial sentiment: Middleborns are different.
SO  - Evolution & Human Behavior. Vol 19(5), Sep 1998, 299-312.
IS  - 1090-5138
LA  - English
AB  - Three studies examined the effects of birth order on several aspects 
of family relations and self-identity. In Study 1, with 268 undergraduates 
(aged 18-30 yrs), 1st and lastborn undergraduates were more likely than 
middleborns to refer to kinship in characterizing themselves. In Study 2, 
140 undergraduates (aged 17-35 yrs) were asked to whom they would turn 
under 2 scenarios of duress. First and lastborns were more likely to 
nominate parents, whereas middleborns were more likely to nominate 
siblings. In Study 3, analyses of historical archives and of an Internet 
questionnaire indicated that genealogical research attracts many more 
1st-born and many fewer middleborns than expected by chance. In all 3 
studies, 1st and lastborns were much more likely than middleborns to 
nominate their mothers as the person to whom they felt closest. These 
substantial effects support claims that birth orders constitute significant 
family niches, which differ with respect to the perceived dependability of 
parental investment and therefore also differ in the social orientations 
that they engender. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).
KP  - birth order & family relations & sentiment & self identity & reliance 
on parents vs siblings, 17-35 yr old 1st- vs middle- vs lastborn college 

AU  - Jefferson, Tyrone Jr.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.; McCrae, Robert R.
AF  - Morgan State U, Baltimore, MD, USA
TI  - Associations between birth order and personality traits: Evidence 
from self-reports and observer ratings.
SO  - Journal of Research in Personality. Vol 32(4), Dec 1998, 498-509.
IS  - 0092-6566
AB  - Birth-order effects on traits within the five-factor model of 
personality were examined in 3 sets of analyses of archival data. The 1st 
used self report measures of Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), and 
Openness (O) in a national sample of 9,664 Ss. Results were unrelated to 
birth order. Self-reports on the 30 facet scales of the Revised NEO 
Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in 612 55-96 yr olds show only small 
effects for Altruism and Tender-Mindedness. Peer ratings of 166 61-94 yr 
olds support the hypotheses that later born children would be higher in 
facets of Openness and Agreeableness, but spouse ratings (N = 88) did not 
replicate those findings. It is concluded that birth order may have subtle 
effects on perceived personality, but it is unlikely that this effect 
mediates associations with scientific radicalism. ((c) 1999 APA/PsycINFO, 
all rights reserved).

AU  - Parker, Wayne D.
AF  - Johns Hopkins U, Inst for the Academic Advancement of Youth, 
Baltimore, MD, USA
TI  - Birth-order effects in the academically talented.
SO  - Gifted Child Quarterly. Vol 42(1), Win 1998, 29-38.
IS  - 0016-9862
LA  - English
AB  - Birth-order position was studied among 828 academically talented 6th 
grade students from a national sample collected by the Institute for the 
Academic Advancement of Youth of Johns Hopkins University. When compared to 
1990 US Census Bureau data, the sample was disproportionately composed of 
first-born students. However, much of this birth order effect can be 
explained by the covariate of family size, with small families  
over-represented among the gifted. First-born students tended to get higher 
verbal scores on the Secondary School Admissions Test while youngest-born 
tended to do better in math. Students were administered the Rotter 
Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, 
the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Adjective Check List, the NEO 
Five Factor Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and the Brief 
Symptom Inventory. Except for a mild relationship between birth order and 
perfectionistic type, there was no relationship found between birth-order 
position and personality and adjustment. It is believed that often reported 
birth-order position effects are strongly related to the covariance of 
family size. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).
KP  - birth order & family size, giftedness & academic ability, 6th grade 
MJ  - Academic Achievement; Birth Order; Family Size; Gifted
MN  - Childhood; Elementary School Students
CC  - 3575 Gifted & Talented
PO  - Human; Male; Female; Childhood (birth-12 yrs); School Age (6-12 yrs)
FT  - Empirical Study
SF  - References
RD  - 19980501

AN  - 1997-06850-008
DT  - Journal Article
AU  - White, JoAnna; Campbell, Linda; Stewart, Alan; Davies, Mardy; et al
AF  - Georgia State U, Dept of Counseling & Psychological Services, 
Atlanta, GA, USA
TI  - The relationship of psychological birth order to career interests.
SO  - Individual Psychology: Journal of Adlerian Theory, Research & 
Practice. Vol 53(1), Mar 1997, 89-104.
IS  - 0277-7010
LA  - English
AB  - 491 Ss (aged 17-50 yrs) completed an occupational interests inventory 
and a psychological birth order inventory.  Each S was given individualized 
feedback on psychological birth order position and the identified 
characteristics of that position.  Additionally, the Ss were given their 
scores on the occupational interests inventory and were offered further 
exploration of the occupational information.  Results indicate that it is 
not the birth order itself that is important, but the pattern of behaviors 
and attitudes that emerge from family experiences, that play a role in 
career interests. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).
KP  - psychological birth order & occupational interests, 17-50 yr olds
MJ  - Birth Order; Occupational Interests
MN  - Adolescence; Adulthood
CC  - 3610 Occupational Interests & Guidance
PO  - Human; Male; Female; Adolescence (13-17 yrs); Adulthood (18 yrs & 
older); Young Adulthood (18-29 yrs); Thirties (30-39 yrs); Middle Age 
(40-64 yrs)
FT  - Empirical Study
SF  - References
RD  - 19970101

AN  - 1997-04913-016
DT  - Journal Article
AU  - Marjoribanks, Kevin
AF  - U Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia
TI  - Ordinal position, family environment, and status attainment among 
Australian young adults.
SO  - Journal of Social Psychology. Vol 137(3), Jun 1997, 398-399.
IS  - 0022-4545
LA  - English
AB  - R. Travis and V. Kohli (see record 83-26312) reported on the 
relationship between birth order and the educational attainment of men and 
women from different socioeconomic backgrounds in the US. The present study 
seeks to refine Travis and Kohli's study by examining the extent to which 
proximal family environment measures mediate relationships between birth 
order and young adults' educational and occupational attainment. Data were 
collected from 300 Australians at age 11 yrs, age 16 yrs , and age 21 yrs. 
Results support Travis and Kohli's conclusion that relations between birth 
order and status-attainment measures vary for adults from differing 
socioeconomic backgrounds. Results also indicate the importance of 
examining gender-related differences in analyses of birth-order effects. 
Generally, the results of this study suggest that birth-order variations in 
young adults' status attainment can be attributed to differences in 
proximal family learning environments, a conclusion that supports further 
the sibling resource-dilution hypothesis. The current analysis thus 
provides a replication and refinement of their findings to an Australian 
sample. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).
KP  - birth order & proximal family environment & educational & 
occupational attainment, 11 vs 16 vs 21 yr olds, Australia, longitudinal 
study, replication & extension
MJ  - Birth Order; Educational Attainment Level; Home Environment; Family 
Socioeconomic Level; Occupational Status
MN  - Adolescence; Childhood; School Age Children; Adulthood
CC  - 2950 Marriage & Family
PO  - Human; Male; Female; Childhood (birth-12 yrs); School Age (6-12 yrs); 
Adolescence (13-17 yrs); Adulthood (18 yrs & older); Young Adulthood (18-29 
PL  - Australia
FT  - Empirical Study; Experimental Replication
SF  - References
RD  - 19970101

AN  - 1997-04731-001
DT  - Journal Article
AU  - Zajonc, Robert B.; Mullally, Patricia R.
AF  - Stanford U, Dept of Psychology, Stanford, CA, USA
TI  - Birth order: Reconciling conflicting effects.
SO  - American Psychologist. Vol 52(7), Jul 1997, 685-699.
IS  - 0003-066X
LA  - English
AB  - (journal abstract) Secular trends in test scores are accurately 
predicted by trends in aggregate birth orders. The trend data contradict 
individual-difference analyses that show birth order as a poor predictor of 
individual test scores. This article demonstrates why the 2 formulations of 
the problem--the individually distributed birth order analysis and 
aggregate-pattern analysis--generate different results. A meaningful 
interpretation is given by the confluence model, a theory specifying the 
process whereby the intellectual environment modulates intellectual 
development. The authors introduce the concept of collective potentiation 
that specifies collective side effects of birth order. In contrast to 
genetic theories, the confluence model quantifies the differential 
environmental contributions to intellectual development of successive 
siblings, and it offers several well-confirmed derivations that genetic and 
other developmental theories cannot explain.  ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all 
rights reserved).
KP  - individually distributed birth order analysis vs aggregate pattern 
analysis as predictors of test scores & confluence model of intellectual 
MJ  - Birth Order; Intellectual Development; Statistical Analysis; Test 
MN  - Models; Statistical Correlation
CC  - 2820 Cognitive & Perceptual Development; 2240 Statistics & 
PO  - Human
SF  - References
RD  - 19970101

AN  - 1997-08229-000
DT  - Authored Book
AU  - Somit, Albert; Arwine, Alan; Peterson, Steven A.
TI  - Birth order and political behavior.
SO  - Lanham, MD, USA: University Press of America, Inc. (1996). vii, 159  
IS  - 0-7618-0133-2 (hardcover); 0-7618-0134-0 (paperback)
LA  - English
AB  - (from the publicity materials) This book provides a careful 
examination of the possible influence of birth order on political 
achievement and behavior.  The authors look at American presidents, Supreme 
Court justices, US senators and representatives, and the careers of an 
entire West Point class.  For a comparative dimension, they also study 
British Prime Ministers, U. N. Secretaries General, post-Reformation popes, 
leaders of the USSR, and great generals through the ages.  [This book 
provides] insightful reading for almost any behavioral scientist.  The book 
will also be relevant to courses in child development, clinical psychology, 
psychiatry, political science, anthropology, and sociology.  
(from the book) [Discusses] the significance of "birth order"--and 
especially the importance of being first-born.[The authors examine] the 
question of why birth order might have a significant effect on personality, 
intelligence, achievement, etc., as well as political behavior? An overview 
of birth order theories [is provided] in an appendix. ((c) 1997 
APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). 
KP  - birth order theories & importance of being first-born, political 
behavior & achievement, elite leaders
MJ  - Achievement; Birth Order; Political Participation; Theories
MN  - Leadership
CC  - 3120 Personality Traits & Processes
PO  - Human
SF  - Index; References
IN  - Psychology: Professional & Research
TO  -     Preface    Part I:  Where we started     Where we started     
Clearing the underbrush    Part II:  Birth order and American political 
elites     Presidents     Supreme Court Justices     Senators and 
Representatives     Military achievement--West Point graduates:  A case 
study    Part III:  Other cultures, other times, other political elites    
 British Prime Ministers:  A second look     Selected foreign elites--The 
Soviet leadership, United Nations Secretaries General and post-Reformation 
Popes     the great generals in history    Part IV:  Where we came out     
". . . to kill a vampire"    Appendix:  Birth order theories    References 
RD  - 19970101

AN  - 1996-04095-010
DT  - Journal Article
AU  - Eyring, William E.; Sobelman, Steven
AF  - Loyola Coll, Baltimore, MD, USA
TI  - Narcissism and birth order.
SO  - Psychological Reports. Vol 78(2), Apr 1996, 403-406.
IS  - 0033-2941
LA  - English
AB  - Investigated the relationship between birth-order position and the 
development of narcissism and compared the psychodynamic and social 
learning hypotheses related to it. 79 undergraduates (mean age 19 yrs) were 
grouped as 1st-borns, only children, 2nd-borns, and last-borns. Ss were 
administered the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (R. N. Raskin & C. 
Hall, 1979). Results reveal that the only children scored the highest on 
the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, followed by last-, 1st- and 
2nd-born children. These results do not support psychoanalytic theory of 
development of narcissism, nor the proposition from social learning theory 
that only children are more likely to develop narcissistic personalities. 
((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).
KP  - birth order & development of narcissism, college students, comparison 
of psychodynamic & social learning hypotheses
MJ  - Birth Order; Narcissism
MN  - Adulthood; Psychodynamics; Social Learning
CC  - 3120 Personality Traits & Processes
PO  - Human; Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
FT  - Empirical Study
SF  - References
RD  - 19970101

AN  - 1996-01743-025
DT  - Journal Article
AU  - Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Goodz, Elizabeth; Deverensky, Jeffrey L.
AF  - McGill U, Dept of Psychology, Montreal, PQ, Canada
TI  - Birth order effects on early language development: Do secondborn 
children learn from overheard speech?
SO  - Child Development. Vol 67(2), Apr 1996, 621-634.
IS  - 0009-3920
LA  - English
AB  - Compared language development of 16 firstborn (FB) and 16 secondborn 
(SB) children (with siblings 1-4 yrs older) of English-speaking families at 
20-22 mo to investigate whether SB children benefit from overheard 
conversations between caregivers and older siblings in learning personal 
pronouns. The child's spontaneous language data and controlled tasks were 
used to measure production of 1st- and 2nd-person pronouns. The mean length 
of utterance, total number of intelligible utterances, total vocabulary 
(types), and total number of words (tokens) were calculated as measures of 
general language development. A follow-up study was conducted 3 mo later to 
examine the subsequent language development of 10 FB and 10 SB children 
using the same procedures and measures as used at 21 mo. Results indicate 
SB children were more advanced than FB children at both ages in pronoun 
production, while not differing in general language development.  ((c) 1997 
APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).
KP  - language development, 1st-vs 2nd-born 20-22 mo olds, 3 mo followup
MJ  - Birth Order; Early Childhood Development; Language Development
MN  - Childhood; Pronouns; Preschool Age Children; Followup Studies; 
CC  - 2820 Cognitive & Perceptual Development
PO  - Human; Childhood (birth-12 yrs); Infancy (1-23 mo); Preschool Age 
(2-5 yrs)
FT  - Empirical Study; Followup Study
SF  - References
RD  - 19970101

AN  - 1996-26312-001
DT  - Journal Article
AU  - Travis, Russell; Kohli, Vandana
AF  - California State U, Dept of Sociology/Anthropology, Bakersfield, USA
TI  - The birth order factor: Ordinal position, social strata, and 
educational achievement.
SO  - Journal of Social Psychology. Vol 135(4), Aug 1995, 499-507.
IS  - 0022-4545
LA  - English
AB  - Explored the relationship between birth order and academic attainment 
of 817 men and women from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds. A measure 
of Ss' family economic situation during their growing-up years was 
incorporated. Birth order had a negative impact on total years of education 
completed among members of the middle class. The observed patterns also 
indicate that only children appeared disproportionately to excel in terms 
of educational attainment. Data support a resource-dilution hypothesis that 
emphasizes the unequal allocation of resources among children as an 
intervening variable between sibling structure and educational 
consequences. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).
KP  - birth order & socioeconomic background & educational attainment, 
MJ  - Birth Order; Education; Family Socioeconomic Level
MN  - Adulthood
CC  - 2950 Marriage & Family
PO  - Human; Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
FT  - Empirical Study
RD  - 19960901

AN  - 1996-21478-001
DT  - Journal Article
AU  - Marjoribanks, Kevin
AF  - U Adelaide, SA, Australia
TI  - Birth order, family environment, and young adults' occupational 
SO  - Psychological Reports. Vol 77(2), Oct 1995, 626-628.
IS  - 0033-2941
LA  - English
AB  - Examined relationships among birth order, family environments, and 
occupational aspirations for 320 21-yr-olds. Results indicated that 
relations between birth order and aspirations were mediated by associations 
between Ss' perceptions of their parents' involvement in learning and the 
measures of aspiration. Realistic aspirations were more strongly related to 
birth order and family environment than idealistic aspirations. ((c) 1997 
APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).
KP  - birth order & family environment & occupational aspiration, 21 yr 
MJ  - Birth Order; Family Relations; Occupational Aspirations
MN  - Adulthood
CC  - 3650 Personnel Attitudes & Job Satisfaction
PO  - Human; Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
FT  - Empirical Study
RD  - 19960701

AN  - 1996-15734-001
DT  - Journal Article
AU  - Sputa, Cheryl L.; Paulson, Sharon E.
AF  - Ball State U, Teachers Coll, Dept of Educational Psychology, Muncie, 
TI  - Birth order and family size: Influences on adolescents' achievement 
and related parenting behaviors.
SO  - Psychological Reports. Vol 76(1), Feb 1995, 43-51.
IS  - 0033-2941
LA  - English
AB  - Examined whether parenting style and parental involvement serve as 
mediators of birth order and family size differences in achievement. The Ss 
were 195 9th grade boys and girls (mean age 14.9 yrs) and both of their 
parents. Questionnaire measures of adolescents' and parents' perceptions of 
parenting style and parental involvement were obtained. Results reveal that 
birth order and family size differences were found in adolescents' 
achievement and perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement, 
but not in parents' perceptions of parenting. However, these parenting 
characteristics did not mediate the differences seen in achievement by 
birth order and family size. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).
KP  - birth order & family size & parenting style & parental involvement, 
academic achievement, 9th graders & their parents
MJ  - Academic Achievement; Birth Order; Family Size; Parent Child 
Relations; Parental Characteristics
MN  - Adolescence; Parents; Adulthood
CC  - 3550 Academic Learning & Achievement
PO  - Human; Adolescence (13-17 yrs); Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
FT  - Empirical Study
RD  - 19960501

AN  - 1995-33052-001
DT  - Journal Article
AU  - Nyman, Lawrence
AF  - City U New York, City Coll, Dept of Psychology, USA
TI  - The identification of birth order personality attributes.
SO  - Journal of Psychology. Vol 129(1), Jan 1995, 51-59.
IS  - 0022-3980
LA  - English
AB  - 139 undergraduate and graduate students (46% Black and 31% Hispanic) 
used adjectival listings to record quantitative and qualitative assessments 
of personality traits for birth order positions. Personality profiles that 
outlined the perceived strengths and weaknesses of each rank and sex were 
established. Regardless of sex, the 1st born was viewed as the most favored 
birth position, followed by the middle, youngest, and only-child positions. 
The bias in favor of or against a particular birth position seemed to be 
linked to personality traits deemed distinctive to that position. Ranking 
of Ss' own birth position was consistent with the way others perceived that 
position. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).
KP  - birth order & personality traits, undergraduate & graduate students
MJ  - Birth Order; Personality Traits
MN  - Adulthood
CC  - 3120 Personality Traits & Processes
PO  - Human; Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
FT  - Empirical Study
RD  - 19950901

AN  - 1995-21128-001
DT  - Journal Article
AU  - Somit, Albert; Peterson, Steven A.; Arwine, Alan
AF  - Southern Illinois U, USA
TI  - Birth order as a factor in presidential selection and performance.
SO  - Social Science Journal. Vol 31(4), 1994, 407-419.
IS  - 0362-3319
LA  - English
AB  - Explores the relationship between birth order and presidential 
selection and performance. Data indicate that birth order has not been 
clearly related to presidential selection over the past 200 yrs. The high 
incidence of 1st-born presidents during the periods between 1789 and 1856 
and between 1920 and 1992 can be explained, at least for the 1st period, in 
terms of educational requirements, the small number of individuals who met 
these requirements, and the educational advantages often enjoyed by eldest 
sons. Results showed no correlation between the performance of 1st-born or 
non-1st-born sons in terms of vote getting ability, use of the veto, 
evaluations of presidential greatness, and presidential personality types. 
((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).
KP  - birth order, presidential selection & performance, presidents
MJ  - Birth Order; Job Performance; Political Elections; Politicians
CC  - 2960 Political Processes & Political Issues
PO  - Human
RD  - 19950601

AN  - 1995-15590-001
DT  - Journal Article
AU  - Somit, Albert; Peterson, Steven A.; Arwine, Alan
AF  - Southern Illinois U, Carbondale, USA
TI  - Birth order and career military success: A research note.
SO  - Politics & the Individual. Vol 4(1), 1994, 95-99.
IS  - 0939-6071
LA  - English
AB  - Researches birth order (especially being the 1st-born child) and 
military career success. First-born children have been proven in the past 
to have extraordinary leadership abilities which bring them to the fore in 
conventional and nonconventional political activities alike. An analysis of 
a large West Point officer cohort indicates no meaningful relationship 
between birth order and military ability. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all 
rights reserved).
KP  - birth order, military career success, West Point cohort
MJ  - Birth Order; Military Personnel; Occupational Success
MN  - Adulthood
CC  - 3800 Military Psychology
PO  - Human; Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
FT  - Empirical Study
RD  - 19950401

AN  - 1994-07621-001
DT  - Journal Article
AU  - Bohmer, Patricia; Sitton, Sarah
AF  - St Edward's U, TX, USA
TI  - The influence of birth order and family size on notable American 
women's selection of careers.
SO  - Psychological Record. Vol 43(3), Sum 1993, 375-380.
IS  - 0033-2933
LA  - English
AB  - A comparison of the birth order and number of siblings for 201 women 
profiled in  Notable American Women  revealed different patterns in the 
selection of occupations for various birth orders and family sizes. 
Chi-square analyses revealed that 2nd-borns selected careers in science 
more frequently than other birth orders; last borns chose careers in 
performing arts most often; writers were more likely to be 1st-borns; and 
reformers, regardless of birth order, came from larger families. ((c) 1997 
APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).
KP  - birth order & family size, career selection, females cited in 
"Notable American Women"
MJ  - Birth Order; Family Size; Human Females; Occupational Choice
MN  - Adulthood
CC  - 3610 Occupational Interests & Guidance
PO  - Human; Female; Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
FT  - Empirical Study
RD  - 19940201

AN  - 1993-47468-001
DT  - Journal Article
AU  - Seff, Monica A.; Gecas, Viktor; Frey, James H.
AF  - U Texas, Arlington, USA
TI  - Birth order, self-concept, and participation in dangerous sports.
SO  - Journal of Psychology. Vol 127(2), Mar 1993, 221-232.
IS  - 0022-3980
LA  - English
AB  - Examined the effect of birth order on participation in dangerous 
sports by surveying 436 members (aged 17-63 yrs) of a parachutists 
association. Assessments were made of degree of risk in Ss' leisure 
activities, background characteristics, reasons for parachuting, and 
self-concept. Findings did not support the hypothesis that later born 
children are more likely than 1st-born children to engage in high-risk 
recreational activities. There was some support for the expectation that 
self-efficacy would be positively related to participation in dangerous 
sports, but not for the expectation that self-efficacy would be related to 
birth order. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).
KP  - birth order & self concept & participation in high risk recreational 
activities, 17-63 yr old parachutist association members
MJ  - Athletic Participation; Birth Order; Risk Taking; Self Concept
MN  - Adolescence; Adulthood
CC  - 3740 Recreation & Leisure
PO  - Human; Adolescence (13-17 yrs); Adulthood (18 yrs & older)
FT  - Empirical Study
RD  - 19931201

AN  - 1994-25189-001
DT  - Journal Article
AU  - Watkins, C. Edward
AF  - U North Texas, USA
TI  - Birth-order research and Adler's theory: A critical review.
SO  - Individual Psychology: Journal of Adlerian Theory, Research & 
Practice. Vol 48(3), Sep 1992, 357-368.
IS  - 0277-7010
LA  - English
AB  - Reviews recent Adlerian research on birth-order (BO) effects to 
examine how such research has controlled for intervening variables (e.g., 
sex) and what can be learned to apply to future research. The 25 BO studies 
appearing in  Individual Psychology  from 1981 through mid-1991 were 
analyzed. Some conclusions suggested by these studies are that achievement 
motivation patterns vary with BO, firstborns often manifest the firstborn 
profile found in Adlerian literature, and BO effects may vary as a result 
of ethnicity. However, there were a number of methodological problems with 
these studies: Age and race were often not mentioned or not well specified. 
10 of the studies used self-developed questionnaires that had 5 or fewer 
items. Also, variables such as siblings' sex, sibship size, age spacing, 
and SES were usually not controlled for. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights 
KP  - methodological problems in Adlerian birth order research, literature 
MJ  - Birth Order; Individual Psychology; Literature Review; Methodology
CC  - 2950 Marriage & Family
PO  - Human
FT  - Literature Review/Research Review
RD  - 19940701

AN  - 1993-09291-001
DT  - Journal Article
AU  - Radio Gaynor, Joni R.; Runco, Mark A.
AF  - California State U, Fullerton, USA
TI  - Family size, birth-order, age-interval, and the creativity of 
SO  - Journal of Creative Behavior. Vol 26(2), 1992, 108-118.
IS  - 0022-0175
LA  - English
AB  - Examined the relationship between age-interval and creative abilities 
(CRAs) of 63 male and 51 female 4th-6th graders. The relationship between 
parental views and the children's CRA was also examined, using 76 parents' 
responses on the Parental Evaluation of Children's Creativity by M. A. 
Runco (see PA, Vol 76:35184). Children's originality and fluency scores on 
3 divergent thinking tests were also measured. Age-interval was related to 
Ss' CRA. When age-interval, age, sex, family size, and birth order were 
considered, a richer description of family factors emerged. After 
controlling for age and age-interval, birth order data revealed that middle 
Ss had different scores, and differences were uncovered based on family 
size. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).
KP  - family size & birth order &

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