|MadSci Network: Engineering|
This is a *very* interesting question, and it was a lot of fun to get the answer. I see two questions: are there electromagnets in motors and are permanent magnets used in motors? Just to define a couple of terms: Coercivity: The magnetic field, expressed in Oerstead (ampere-turns/cm), required to magnetize or *demagnetize* a substance (aka resistance to demagnetization). This is a major factor in electric motor use since the current thru the motor coils produces a magnetic flux opposing that of the permanent magnets; if this flux gets too high the motor magnets will demagnetize and you have a dead motor. Gauss: Magnetic Flux Density, magnetic "lines of force"/sq.meter. Also Tesla, where 1 Tesla = 10000 Gauss. This flux is what is responsible for magnets attracting/repelling things. All materials have what is called a saturation flux density, the highest flux density you can get with the material no matter how much coercive force you apply. Permeability: The 'magnetizability' of the material, gauss/oerstead. For electric motor use you want the magnets, permanent or electromagnetic, to have the highest 'energy density' = coercivity x flux density. Now, the short answers to your questions: Bismuth is not used in electromagnets--no advantage to using it. Bismuth *is* used in permanent magnets. For electromagnet use, you want the highest saturation flux density you can get. You also need good permeability and the stuff has to be cheap. Here the standard material used is very very pure iron, this gives a saturation flux density of about 14.1 KGauss. Coercivity is not an issue here if you can pump enough current through the electromagnet coils giving you 'unlimited' coercive force. So in theory you can get as powerful an electromagnet as you like, for any purpose. The limiting factor here is the saturation flux density, limiting energy density in a given volume. So if you want more force, say for a more powerful motor, you have to make the magnets very large. The problems that result here are the electromagnet size, mechanical strength and coil support, and power required, often megawatts. I've seen one electromagnet-based motor of 15,000 horsepower, about the size of a locomotive, required ~15 megawatts electric power. Re Bismuth use in permanent magnets and permanent magnet electric motors: Around 50 years ago, maybe more, the US Naval Ordnance Laboratory developed a permanent magnetic alloy called "Bismanol" which is a Bismuth-Manganese-Iron alloy. Bismanol has very high coercive force and moderate energy density, making it pretty good for small electric motors. [To digress slightly, 'ordnance' means bombs, cannon shells, torpedos. Ordnance sometimes contain guidance systems which use small electric motor-powered gyroscopes. Hence the military need for a good motor magnet, and I suspect that that was the reason that the US Naval Ordnance Laboratory was behind this Bismanol work.] However, checking several magnetic materials companies did not turn up any bismuth alloy magnets. Nor could I find any data on any bismuth-containing magnetic materials. [That does not mean that the data does not exist--it has to--but that the data is buried deep within physics archives]. I've been working with magnetics since 1973 and have never heard of Bismanol. So I suspect that Bismanol was replaced long ago by other alloys. Thus I suggest that you not waste any time trying to find Bismuth alloys. But there is a solution: currently the highest energy density permanent magnetic material in general use is a Neodymium-Iron-Boron alloy. This has an extremely high coercivity and a moderate remnant flux; the energy density (coercivity x remnant flux) is the highest around. Also, the stuff is relatively cheap so NdFeB magnets are used in everything from automobile accessory motors on up. This is what I suggest you look into. Suppliers: Arnold Engineering 214-821-4654 Magnetics Incorporated 412-282-8282 Magnetic Metals 714-892-6627 You should be able to buy NdFeB from them. Often, for small quantities, just ask for a sample and then you'll get the stuff for free. Then, since NdFeB is relatively easy to machine (unlike other high energy magnets) a magnetic materials distributor or a local machine shop will almost certainly be able to form the material for you. Summary: For electromagnets use iron but be prepared to spend lots of money building one and paying the electric bill. For permanent magnets use NeFeB. Good Luck!
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