Giorgio de Chirico: 1888-1978

1888: Giorgio de Chirico is born to father Evaristo de Chirico and mosther Gemma Cervetto in Volos on July 10th.

1891 Brother Andrea born in Athens.
Giorgio takes his first drawing lessons.

1899 The family moves to Athens. Giorgio studies drawing at the Polytechnic, and takes a course in painting with the portraitist Jacobidis.

1905 Evaristo de Chirico dies. The family returns to Italy.

1906 Move to Munich in the autumn. There de Chirico visits the Academy and discovers the works of Böcklin, Klinger, Nietzsche, and Schopenhauer. His mother and brother return to Milan to further his brother's musical career.

1910 Paints first recorded canvases, inspired by Böcklin.
Brother moves to Paris.
Giorgio returns to Milan, then travels with his mother to Florence. His new works of future Italian squares show the metaphysical inspiration, the Enigmas.

1911 Move to Paris to join brother Andrea.

1913 Following the advice of Guillame Apollinaire, participates in the Salon des Indépendants.
Sells first painting, The Red Tower in November, at the Salon d'Automne.

1914 Meets dealer Paul Guillame through Apollinaire. Signs contract with Guillame for entirety of his artistic production.

1915 Outbreak of WWI. Giorgio and Andrea return to Italy to join the army. They are ultimately transferred to Ferrara, and joined by their mother. While in Ferrar Giorgio meets Filippo de Pisis and Carlo Carrà. He contributes regularly to the art journal Valori Plastici, the same journal that gives him theoretical credibility for his development of Metaphysical Painting.

1918 Transferred to Rome. His collaborations continue with Valori Plastici and members of futurist and DADA groups despite financial difficulties.

1919 One-man exhibition at Galleria Bragaglia in Rome. He sells but one painting.
Writes Noi Metafisici (We Metaphysicals), his fundamental manifesto.

1924 Meets, and marries Raissa Gurievich, a Russian ballerina with the 'Theater of Eleven'. They travel to Paris where she studies archaeology.

1925 The Surrealists take de Chirico as their master and inspiration, and cling most vehemently with his metaphysical paintings, to the point where André Breton publicly attacks deChirico at his one-man opening in Galerie Lénce Rosenberg, calling his recent works degenerate.

1926 de Chirico breaks with the Surrealists. Breton considers him a 'lost genius.' de Chirico's stance becomes that of anti-surrealist, anti-modernist.

1927-8 Exhibitions with the 'Novenco' group including shows in America.
Jean Cocteau publishes Le Mystère Laic, an acclaimed critical analysis of de Chirico's work.

1929 de Chirico publishes his autobiographical work Hebdomeros
He designs the decor and costumes for the the ballet Le Bal with music bu Rieti, mis en scène by Diaghilev's Ballets Russes.

1930 Publishes 30 lithographs in Apollinaire's Calligrammes (Éditions Gallimard). The same year he meets Russian émigré Isabella Pakszwer who becomes his second wife. He lives with her until his death.

1932 The couple moves to Italy, though Giorgio travels regularly to Paris to continue his work as a scenographer.

1944 Giorgio and Isabella settle permanently in Rome. Numerous arguments aris concerning the authenticity of his works, arguments that become more embittered over the years.

1948 Has a prominent place in the Venice Biennal.
de Chirico is nominated into the Royal Society of British Artists, London.

1950 Organizes the 'anti-biennal' with a group of realist painters from the Società Canottieri Bucintore, Venice.

1952-1954 Shows in Venice, considered 'anti-modern' in conception.

1955-1960 Returns to 'Metaphysical' subjects from previous years. Paints many 'silent lifes' with the familiar landscapes, interiors and portraits. Denounces the many forgeries of his works flooding the market.

1964 Returns to work as a scenographer. Starts to produce sculptures in bronze. Through the sculpture he presents the characters of his metaphysical worlds in three dimensions.

1968 Many independant lithographic works.

1972-1974 Itinerant exhibition in Japan, 'De Chirico presents de Chirico'

1975 Given the title of Acadmic of France. Exhibits at the Museé Marmottan, Paris.

1976 Receives the Cross of the Great Officer from the Federal Republic of Germany.

1978 Artcurial, Paris -- homage to de Chirico on his 90th birthday.
de Chirico dies November 20th of the same year, in Rome.