### Re: What are the steps and materials needed to build a pocket calculator?

Area: Engineering
Posted By: Kuncoro Wastuwibowo, Staff Telecommunication
Date: Wed Jan 15 20:00:55 1997
Message ID: 851890394.Eg

A calculator is composed of logic circuits. Logic circuits are solid components (named integrated circuit, or IC) which consist of thousands or millions of transistor components. Each transistor can do a very simple logical operation. Adding them together lets the ICs do a complex operation, therefore we can program them to [1] do a mathematical operation, [2] recognize external input (the keypad), and [3] send the calculation result to an output device (in this case, the LED - calculator screen).

Steps to build a calculator:

```1. Search the 'component libraries' for the specific IC required for
our need.
2. Having the IC (or ICs), we place it in a small board, with additional
components, the cables, the LED, the keypad, etc.
3. Pack it.
4. Finished.
```
The more difficult step is to built an IC (do you need it too?)
```1. Design the logical circuit. A very complex circuit may need a
very thick and large book to design (not really, we have computers
now).
2. Map the circuit design onto semiconductor materials. There are
some natural elements included to semiconductor materials:
Silicon (the most famous), Germanium, or Arsen. Mapping a very complex
design to a very tiny material needs a very-very accurate and precise
process. The tiny material containing the complex design is named
'chips'.
3. The chips are then packed to form a small component. That's the IC.
```
End.

Sincerely,

Kuncoro Wastuwibowo

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