|MadSci Network: Engineering|
The reply :
A calculator is composed of logic circuits. Logic circuits are solid components (named integrated circuit, or IC) which consist of thousands or millions of transistor components. Each transistor can do a very simple logical operation. Adding them together lets the ICs do a complex operation, therefore we can program them to  do a mathematical operation,  recognize external input (the keypad), and  send the calculation result to an output device (in this case, the LED - calculator screen).
Steps to build a calculator:
1. Search the 'component libraries' for the specific IC required for our need. 2. Having the IC (or ICs), we place it in a small board, with additional components, the cables, the LED, the keypad, etc. 3. Pack it. 4. Finished.The more difficult step is to built an IC (do you need it too?)
1. Design the logical circuit. A very complex circuit may need a very thick and large book to design (not really, we have computers now). 2. Map the circuit design onto semiconductor materials. There are some natural elements included to semiconductor materials: Silicon (the most famous), Germanium, or Arsen. Mapping a very complex design to a very tiny material needs a very-very accurate and precise process. The tiny material containing the complex design is named 'chips'. 3. The chips are then packed to form a small component. That's the IC.End.
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